The takbeer is repeated throughout the prayer. The prayer is started by it and positions are changed by it.
Allah is Greater
Allah is greater and higher than everything else.
Istiftaah (The Opening)
There are different supplications reported in the hadith literature but the following one is the most common, therefore, I will stick to it alone.
سبحانك اللهم وبحمدك، وتبارك اسمك، وتعالى جدك، ولا إله غيرك
How perfect You are O Allah, and with You is all praise. Blessed be Your name, and lofty is Your position and none has the right to be worshiped except You
سبحانك اللهم – How perfect You are O Allah
How sacred/pure You are O Allah and free from every deficiency and defect.
وبحمدك – And with You is all praise
All praise and thanks belong to You alone because You are the originator of everything.
وتبارك اسمك – Blessed be Your name
Glorified and respectable is Your name and abundantly blessed.
وتعالى جدك – Lofty is Your position
Your greatness and power are elevated and ascended.
ولا إله غيرك – None has the right to be worshiped except You
There is no deity worthy of worship other than You.
Ta’awwuz (Seeking Refuge)
Allah has legislated for every reciter of the Qur’an to seek refuge with Him from the expelled Shaytan (Satan). He said, “So when you recite the Qur’an, [first] seek refuge in Allah from Satan, the expelled [from His mercy]” [Qur’an 16:98]. That is because the Qur’an is a guidance for mankind and a cure for what is in the hearts. Shaytan is a means to evils and misguidance, therefore, Allah commanded every reciter of the Qur’an to seek protection in Him from the expelled Shaytan, his whispers, and his party. Since the worshiper is about to start reciting the Qur’an, it is befitting that he recite the ta’wwuz before moving forward.
Here is the wording of the ta’wwuz:
أعوذ بالله من الشيطان الرجيم
I seek refuge in Allah from the expelled Shaytan
أعوذ بالله – I seek refuge in Allah
I seek protection/recourse in Allah alone.
من الشيطان – from the Shaytan (Satan)
From every rebellious and arrogant being from among the jinn and mankind that diverts me from obeying my Lord and reciting His book.
الرجيم – The expelled
The one who is expelled or ousted from every good. It is also often translated as ‘cursed’.