All the Prophet’s (pbuh) offspring, with the exception of Ibraheem, were born to Khadeejah. Below is a brief account of the Prophet’s children.
He was the eldest son of the Prophet (pbuh), and thus the Prophet was called “Abul Qasim” (the father of Qasim). He died when he was about two years old.
She was the eldest daughter of the Prophet (pbuh). She was born after Qasim, and was married to Abdul Aas bin Rabi’a, the son of her aunt Hala bint Khuwaylid. Zaynab had a son named Ali and a daughter, Umama, whom the Prophet would place in his lap during prayer. Zaynab died in the earlier part of 8 A.H., in Madinah.
She was the third child born to the Prophet Muhammad (pbuh) and Khadija. She was married to her cousin Utbah bin Abu Lahab, the uncle of the Prophet. After the Prophet began to openly preach Islam, Abu Lahab told his son that he would never speak to him again unless he divorced Ruqayyah, which Utbah accordingly did. She was then married to Uthman bin Affan and accompanied him on the first migration to Abyssinnia. She gave birth to a son, Abdullah, who died when he was six years old in Medina. She had no further children. Ruqayyah fell ill right before the Battle of Badr so Uthman was excused from his military duties in order to nurse her. She died later in the month, on the day when Zayd ibn Harithah returned to Medina with news of their victory at the Battle of Badr.
After the death of Ruqayyah, the Prophet (pbuh) returned from Badr and gave Umm Khulthoom to Uthman bin Affan in marriage. She had no children, and died in 9 A.H. and was buried in Baqi.
The youngest daughter of the Prophet (pbuh), she was married to Ali bin Abi Talib after the Battle of Badr. She gave birth to two sons, Hasan and Husayn, and two daughters, Zaynab and Umm Khulthoom. Fatimah died six months after the death of the Prophet.
All of the children mentioned above were born before the Prophet was appointed as Allah’s messenger.
There is some difference of opinion whether Abdullah was born before or after the advent of Islam. He was the last of the Prophet’s sons born to Khadeejah, and died during childhood.
Ibraheem was born in Madinah in Jamad Al-Awwal or Jamal Al-Akhir, 9 A.H. His mother was the Prophet’s (pbuh) maid, Maria Qibtiya. On the day of his death, Shawwal 29, 10 A.H., a solar eclipse occurred in Madinah. The people believed that the eclipse was to commemorate Ibraheem’s death, but the Prophet informed them that astronomical events were not affected by human affairs. Ibraheem was sixteen or eighteen months old when he died, and was buried in Baqi, and the Prophet (pbuh) said, “He will be nursed by one of the maids in Paradise.”